TTL Mechanism

TTL mechanism prevents packets from circulating endlessly and ensures that they either reach their destination or are dropped after a predetermined number of hops. It helps maintain network efficiency and prevents potential loops in the routing process.

Initial TTL Setting:
The packet leaves the source client with an initial TTL value.
As it encounters the first router, the TTL is decremented by 1.

First Router:
The TTL value is now less than the original setting.
The packet continues to the second router with the decremented TTL.

Second Router:
Similar to the first router, the TTL is decremented by 1.
The packet moves on to the third router.

Third Router:
The TTL undergoes another decrement.
The packet reaches the destination host with a further reduced TTL.

Destination Host:
If the TTL reaches zero at any point in this journey, the packet is discarded.
Otherwise, it arrives at the destination host with the remaining TTL value.