VPN, or Virtual Private Network, is a technology that allows you to create a secure and encrypted connection over a less secure network, such as the internet. There are several types of VPNs, each with its own characteristics and use cases. Here are some common types: Remote Access VPN: This type of VPN is used … Read more

TTL Mechanism

TTL mechanism prevents packets from circulating endlessly and ensures that they either reach their destination or are dropped after a predetermined number of hops. It helps maintain network efficiency and prevents potential loops in the routing process. Initial TTL Setting:The packet leaves the source client with an initial TTL value.As it encounters the first router, … Read more

Router on a stick (ROAS)

Almost all networks in the world use Virtual Local Area Networks nowadays. In our lesson about VLANs we have learned a general rule of thumb that is: This means that if we have nodes connected in different VLANs, they most probably are part of different subnets. If we take the topology shown in Figure 1 for example, … Read more

Number System

The number system or the numeral system is the system of naming or representing numbers. We know that a number is a mathematical value that helps to count or measure objects and it helps in performing various mathematical calculations. There are different types of number systems in Maths like decimal number system, binary number system, octal … Read more

Cisco Packet Tracer Download

Cisco Packet Tracer allows students to practice networking concepts in a simulated environment without needing expensive hardware or risking damage to networks. The tool also allows students to experiment with network topologies and configurations and observe the effects of their changes in real-time. Download